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Full text of "Santos from Puerto Rico : [exhibition catalog]"

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A1C77S 



SANTOS 

from Puerto Rico 






VN the occasion of this first showing of Puerto Rican Santos in New 
York, I welcome the opportunity to express the sense of gratification that 
we in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico entertain toward the undertaking. 
We are pleased to share with our mainland neighbors a familiarity with 
this ancient craft, which has been an essential element of our culture; and 
we are happy that in New York, the new home of so many of our sons and 
daughters, it should be the honored institution founded by Peter Cooper 
that has solicited the assistance of the Commonwealth in making this public 
presentation of these cherished household figures. 

The present exhibition cannot fail to engender increased understanding 
between Commonwealth and mainland; we find great pleasure in giving 
it our support. 

Luis MuNoz Marin 

Governor of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico 

In stepping outside the customary bounds of its activity, The Cooper 
Union offers the present exhibition of devotional figures carved by Puerto 
Rican santeros as evidence of its respect for the fundamental principles of 
its humanitarian Founder, Peter Cooper. The recent emergence of Puerto 
Rico as a free-standing Commonwealth, and its energetic attack upon prob- 
lems of social and physical betterment, could scarcely fail to appeal to those 
who share Mr. Cooper's belief that "a true republican government . . . will 
most effectually stimulate industry and afford the best means possible to 
improve and elevate our race, by giving security and value to all forms of 
human labor." 

The santos here shown impressed me, zuhen I first saw them earlier this 
year in San Juan, as potential ambassadors of great effectiveness. I am 
happy that their devoted possessor, Dr. Fernando M. Monserrate, has al- 
lowed himself to be persuaded to entrust them to our temporary care, and 
that the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico has contributed generously to the 
arrangements necessary for their showing. I am equally confident that upon 
their return they will carry with them the greatly enhanced understanding 
of New Yorkers, and an informed sense of participation in the develop- 
ment of the Commoniuealth of Puerto Rico. 

Edwin S. Burdell 

President, The Cooper Union 

Copyright, 1953, by The Cooper Union 

2 



to 

INTRODUCTIO 

Detween "image" and "imagination" lies the whole realm of formed 
ideas. The image impersonates, condenses and focuses. Imagination fabri- 
cates, magnifies and diffuses. All provinces of art are sheltered by these 
twin boundaries: an image without imagination is only an idol; imagina- 
tion without tangible imagery is only the indolent world of dreams. The 
labor of the artist is to fuse these contraries, giving a soul to what is lifeless, 
and substance to invention. The artist — humble, arrogant, contentious or 
staid — always has one thing in common with his kind. He is fated to find, 
somehow, explicit shapes for his internal vision. 

When the shapes found are those, not of genius or style, but faith, and 
when image and imagination are poured into religious molds, we must 
first seek out the belief and then interpret and translate. The artists with 
whom we deal are the santeros of Puerto Rico, carvers of santos or devo- 
tional figures. There are those who sell their products, execute commissions, 
take part in competitions, and conduct themselves with all the authority 
of professionals. Others are amateurs, who out of religious fervor and 
primeval creative need carve these figures for their own devotions. 

Carving was and still is done with coarse or improvised instruments, 
sometimes only with a simple knife. At first single pieces of native woods — 
mastic and coaba — prevailed, the configuration of the piece determining 
the form. Later imported woods were used — pine, fir and oak — with sections 
carved separately and glued together or fastened with wooden pegs. Colors, 
in the early and middle colonial periods, were pale and sober: gray, rose, 
pale blue, moss green and ochre. Later they increased in intensity: reds, 
yellows and brilliant blue, amplified by gold and silver, predominated, as 
if, while the traditions became fixed, the hues responded chromatically 
to the tropical country. Pigment in the earlier figures was applied over 
a fine layer of gesso, the gesso being used only as a priming for the paint, 
not for modelling details, which are cut directly into the wood. A much 
finer texture resulted than in later works, in which polychromy is applied 
directly to the base. Figures are often repainted many times, for the jibaro, 
the countryman, may have promised the statue a new coat of paint for the 
granting of some favor; and the statue is always repainted on the eve of 
the fiesta in honor of its name-day. 

On the twelfth of August, 1508, Juan Ponce de Leon landed at Guanica on 
the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. For the Tainians of Boriquen there began 
the forcible importation of a creed at once so majestic and overmastering 
that their temperate paganism was annihilated. They worshipped a spirit of 



good, Yocahu, and strove against a spirit of evil, Yurakdn. Their priests, 
bohiques, were responsible for the education of children and the healing of 
the sick. Social life predisposed the Indians to the acceptance of the less 
militant aspects of the Old and New Testaments; and they made crude idols, 
cemies, of abraded stone. 

But the hosts of saints and personages who fill the Christian annals with 
miracles were too elaborate a concourse ever to be understood in its 
entirety. The Christian faith was spread largely by Franciscans and Domini- 
cans, mendicant orders deficient in the richness of plastic tradition com- 
manded by the Benedictines. From the church and convent of Santo Domingo 
in San Juan, founded by Pedro Antonio de Montesino in 1528, from San 
Patricio at Loiza Vieja and the "Ermita de la Candelaria del Plantaje" in 
Sabana Seca, the image and doctrine of Christ Crucified (1, 4, 15*, 39*, 46, 
69, 74*, 76, 94, 96, 116, 161) spread throughout the island. 

When the hindrances to artistic patronage are considered (for art has 
an expedient way of attending wealth), it is a testament to the prodigy of 
faith that the jibaro could put into form concepts not wholly grasped, which 
still tax theologians. The simplicity and similarity of these forms correspond 
to the simplicity and universal dispersion of the faith behind them; to the 
vision, albeit childlike, of the Kingdom of God. This kingdom, in the 
carver's mind, is devoid of affluence, either material or spiritual: it is his 
own village and countryside, and the eternal life to be lived there is 
doubtless not very different from a day without trouble. So the saints 
are those to which the countryman appeals when in his own kind of need, 
or those special patrons of the priestly orders. The aspects of the Virgin 
are those he sees in the church nearby, and the Three Kings and Nativities, 
nacimientos, are the symbols of the national holiday and the sweetest of 
all ecclesiastical celebrations. 

Saint Raymond Nonnatus (9, 38, 66*, 109, 150), his lips bored and 
padlocked by the Moors to prevent his spreading the Word, was invoked 
by women in labor and by the falsely accused. Saint Barbara (22*, 23), was 
the daughter of a rich and noble Greek of Heliopolis, who immured her 
in a tower to save her from the consequences of her beauty. Her father 
beheaded her for her conversion, and was destroyed by lightning; she is 
protectress against explosions of gunpowder and storms, as well she might 
be in this island, with its history of invasions and hurricanes. The sister 
of Mary Magdalene, Saint Martha (24, 65, 139*), was the patroness of 
servants, for it was she who waited upon the Saviour when He dined at 
Bethania. The unlettered Spaniard, Saint Isidore the Laborer (25*), whose 
fields were ploughed, while he prayed, by two angels, protects peasants 
and day laborers, and Saint Anne (63), mother of the Virgin, guards the 



childbearer and miners; Saint Thomas (92) is the patron of carpenters. 
An infant, when he is baptized, comes under the special protection of 
Saint John the Baptist (33*), and if in his journey through life he exercises 
trust and faith in his worldly guides, he may be likened to Tobias and the 
Angel (102, 151). The archangels (28, 29, 45, 79, 118, 153), those dread 
and radiant beings, are the chief guardians of any Christian soul in its perils. 

Other saints were especially venerated by the friars and nuns who labored 
on the island. Saint Francis (82) was, of course, the founder of the Fran- 
ciscan Order, but Saint Anthony of Padua (2, 5, 6*, 7, 10, 20, 21, 34, 35, 
42, 48, 50, 51, 64, 71*, 89, 91, 97, 100, 111, 132*, 135, 141, 146), second 
in importance to the founder, was much more popular because of the 
benignancy with which he is represented. The legend that the Christ Child 
descended and seated Himself on the saint's book while he was expounding 
the Incarnation, dates from the early Spanish colonial period, and has 
produced a peculiarly winning group. Saint Joseph (3*, 36*, 78, 1 10) became 
patron of the Carmelites in 1621, while Saint Elizabeth of Portugal (108, 
143), "The Peacemaker", was revered primarily by Franciscans. The Im- 
maculate Mother (11, 16, 17, 37, 40, 67*, 87*, 90, 95) was elected patron 
of the Friars Minor of the Franciscan Order in 1621; they were bound by 
oath to preach the mystery of the Immaculate Conception. The Carmelites, 
especially active Spanish colonial missionaries, were dedicated to Our 
Lady of Mount Carmel (31, 41, 73, 101, 105, 125, 128, 145, 148, 152), while 
the Sacred Heart of Mary (47*) is adored by two sisterhoods now prominent 
on the island. Saint Rita of Cascia (98, 37, 147), "la santa de los impossibiles", 
was canonized in 1900: iconographically, she is probably the latest arrival. 

There are, in Christianity, certain theological conceptions of enormous 
subtlety and ineffable wonder, which can be reduced to ordinary compre- 
hension only by casting them in perfunctory visual terms. One is the Holy 
Trinity (107, 127*, 129, 131), another is the Divine Providence (32, 68). 
The santero has, in both cases, embodied these abstractions as images, for 
they elude the imagination. The concept, however, of the "anima sola", 
the "lone soul" in purgatory (57, 70), who suffers that he may at length 
be redeemed, is so close to reality that in Puerto Rico this pitiful spirit has 
been raised to the status of a santol 

The Virgin Mary, as intercessor, as Queen of Heaven, as the distillation 
of all that is charitable, merciful and forgiving, will find a response in the 
most unpretentious or lordly artist. She may stand, erect (117, 119, 123, 
126, 130, 134) and irresistible, to defend and shelter, or to receive the 
prayers of her petitioners; she may kneel (115, 122), in adoration of her 
Son; she may take the guise of "La Purisima", "the most pure", and clasp 
her hands in prayer (8, 13, 14, 27, 44, 54, 58, 59*, 61, 120, 133), or that 



of "La Dolorosa", "Our Lady of Sorrows", and expose the dagger in her heart 
(55, 84, 104). But with whatever attributes, she is always "El Perpetuo 
Socorro", "Our Lady of Perpetual Help" (85*, 93, 140), with angels upon 
her shoulders, the support of men and the ranks of Heaven. Two types 
of the Virgin, as Our Lady of Monserrat (12, 18, 30, 43*, 49, 60*, 62, 77, 
80, 81, 86, 99, 103, 106, 124, 142, 144, 149) and in "the Miracle of 
Hormigueros" (72*) are uniquely Puerto Rican. Our Lady of Monserrat 
is the most profoundly revered of all figures on the island; her shrine, at 
Hormigueros, dates from the early part of the 17th century. Here a farmer 
was working in a field, when a mad bull rushed at him: calling on Our 
Lady of Monserrat for protection, the vision at once appeared and the 
animal kneeled in adoration, giving the man a chance to escape. 

To the Christian mind the wonder of miracles is as nothing beside the 
enduring wonder of the Nativity and the journey of the Three Wise Men, 
who came out of the East bearing gold, frankincense and myrrh for the 
newly-born King greater than the kings of earth. Perhaps it is the unearthly 
tenderness with which the story begins; perhaps it is mankind's immemorial 
enchantment by a mystery in which the lowly and exalted are mingled 
with such drama. The nacimiento or Christmas manger, originated by Saint 
Francis in the church at Greccio in 1223, has always been a particular 
favorite among Latin peoples. In the Cathedral of San Jose in San Juan 
a nacimiento is set up every year which is an animated town of Bethlehem, 
with figures pursuing all their trades and occupations. The nacimiento of 
the santero (154, 167*, 169, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186) is a cuadro or group, 
usually of about a dozen figures, which stand resplendent with bright 
colors around the crib. The Three Kings (88, 136, 155, 156*, 157, 158, 
159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 166, 168, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 
178, 179, 180) mounted or on foot, carrying their gifts or musical instruments 
wherewith to serenade the Saviour, may either form part of the group or 
be used separately for their own festival on January 6th. 

In the work of Zoilo Cajigas (1855-) (187-200), the aged santero of 
Aguada, we can connect the traditional forms with contemporary appli- 
cation. Don Zoilo, so it is related, in his thirtieth year four times received 
visions of the Nazarene (83), who commanded him to lay aside his car- 
penter's tools and work for Him. Don Zoilo did so, and since that time 
has dedicated himself to carving and painting santos, which he sells or 
gives away. This ancient jibaro, with his unquestioning faith and conse- 
crated labor, carries the late colonial period into modern times, and does so 
with an adaptability that is proof of the vitality to be drawn from the synthesis 
of image and imagination. He does not seek to make of his figures (and 
no more should we) intricate assertions of personal reaction to the world. 





47 




Nor are they mere offerings to placate a possible future vengeance. Their 
awkwardness is the innocence of piety uncomplicated by philosophy or 
cunning, of naturalness in the face of marvels of the human imagination 
that would, in a less modest master, go over into mannerism and falsehood. 
The truth of the santos lies in the reality, to him, of the vision to which 
the santero has given form, in the way in which the carver submits, with 
alacrity and meekness, to the commandments of material and mystery. 
These stark or formal effigies, with their often rude handiwork and direct 
colors, none the less attest again the words of St. Nilus of Sinai, "But an 
image escorts into the mind the thought of heavenly things." 

Everett P. Lesley, Jr. 



CATALOGUE 

An asterisk (*) indicates that the object is illustrated 



1. Cristo Crucificado (Christ Crucified); wood 
with gesso, original paint and repaint; 
probably late 16th century; found near 
Hatillo. 

2. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood with 
gesso, painted and repainted; late 16th 
or early 17th century; found near Hatillo. 

*3. San Jose (St. Joseph); wood, painted and 
repainted; late 16th or early 17th cen- 
tury; found between Hatillo and Camuy. 

4. Cristo Crucificado (Christ Crucified); wood 
with gesso and original paint; early 17th 
century; found near Bayam6n. 

5. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood with 
gesso and original paint; early 17th 
century; found between Bayam6n and 
Naranjito. 

*6. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood with 
gesso and original paint; 17th century; 
found in Juncos. 

7. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood with 
gesso, much repainting; late 17th cen- 
tury; found near Bayamdn. 

8. La Purisima (The Most Pure, The Virgin 
Mary); wood with gesso, much repaint- 
ing; late 17th century; found in rural 
Arecibo. 

9. San Ramon Nonato (St. Raymond); wood 
with gesso, much repainting; early 18th 
century; found in La Plata Valley near 
Aibonito. 

10. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood with 
gesso, painted and repainted; probably 
18th century; found in La Plata Valley, 
Aibonito. 

11. La Inmaculada Concepcion (The Im- 
maculate Conception); wood with gesso, 
painted and repainted with gold, par- 
tially removed; probably 18th century, 
found in Bayamon. 

12. La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); 
wood with gesso, painted and repainted; 
probably 18th century; found in Bayam6n. 

13. La Purisima (The Most Pure, The Virgin 



Mary); wood with gesso, original paint 
on back, front repainted; probably 18th 
century; found in Bayamon. 
14. La Purisima (The Most Pure, The Virgin 
Mary); wood with gesso, painted, all save 
face repainted; probably 18th century; 
found in Bayamon. 
*15. Cristo Crucificado (Christ Crucified); wood 
with gesso, original paint; cross from 
another group; 18th century; found near 
Bayam6n. 

16. La Inmaculada (The Immaculate Con- 
ception); wood with gesso and original 
paint; late 18th century; found in 
Bayam6n. 

17. La Inmaculada (The Immaculate Con- 
ception); wood with gesso and original 
paint; late 18th century; found in 
Bayam6n. 

18. La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); 
wood with gesso and original paint; late 
18th century; found between Bayamon 
and Naranjito. 

19. San Tomds (?) or San Juan (?) (St. Thomas 
(?) or St. John (?)); unidentified; wood 
with gesso and original paint, probably 
late 18th century. 

20. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood with 
gesso, original paint except for repainted 
face; probably late 18th century; found 
in Afiasco. 

21. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood with 
gesso, original paint; probably late 18th 
century; found in Guanajibo, Mayagiiez. 

*22. Santa Barbara (St. Barbara); wood with 
gesso, original paint; early 19th century; 
found in Bayamdn. 

23. Santa Barbara (St. Barbara); wood with 
gesso and original paint; early 19th cen- 
tury; found near Bayamon. 

24. Santa Marta (St. Martha); wood with 
gesso and original paint; early 19th cen- 
tury; found near Bayamon. 

*25. San Isidro Labrador (St. Isidore the 



Laborer); wood with gesso, painted; early 
19th century; found in La Plata Valley, 
Aibonito. 

26. Tobias (?) (probably from a St. Raphael 
group); unidentified: wood with gesso, 
original paint in hand and face, re- 
mainder repainted; early 19th century; 
found near Aibonito. 

27. La Purisima (The Most Pure, The Virgin 
Mary); wood with gesso and original 
paint; early 19th century; found in 
Bayam6n. 

28. San Gabriel Arcdngel (Archangel Gabriel); 
wood with gesso and original paint; 
early 19th century; found in La Plata 
Valley, Aibonito. 

29. San Rafael (St. Raphael); wood with 
gesso, original paint; early 19th century; 
found in La Plata Valley, Aibonito. 

30. La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); 
wood with gesso, original paint; early 
19th century; found in La Plata Valley, 
Aibonito. 

31. La Virgen del Carmen (Our Lady of 
Mount Carmel); wood with gesso, original 
paint; early 19th century; found in La 
Plata Valley, Aibonito. 

32. La Divina Providencia (The Divine Provi- 
dence); wood with gesso, original paint; 
early 19th century; found in La Plata 
Valley, Aibonito. 

*33. San Juan Bautista (St. John the Baptist); 
wood with gesso, original paint; early 
19th century; found in La Plata Valley, 
Aibonito. 

34. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood with 
gesso, original paint; early 19th century; 
found in La Plata Valley, Aibonito. 

35. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood with 
gesso, original paint; early 19th century; 
found in La Plata, Aibonito. 

*36. San Jose (St. Joseph); wood with gesso, 
painted and repainted; early 19th cen- 
tury; found in Barranquitas. 

37. La Inmaculada Concepcion (The Im- 
maculate Conception); wood with gesso, 
painted and repainted; early 19th cen- 
tury; found in La Plata, Aibonito. 

38. San Ramon Nonato (St. Raymond); wood 
with gesso, painted and repainted; early 
19th century; found in La Plata, Aibonito. 

•39. Crucifijo (Crucifix); wood with gesso, 
original paint; early 19th century; found 
in La Plata, Aibonito. 

40. La Inmaculada (The Immaculate Con- 
ception); wood with gesso, painted and 
repainted; early 19th century; found in 
Bayam6n. 

41. La Virgen del Carmen (Our Lady of 
Mount Carmel); wood with gesso, painted 
and repainted; early 19th century; found 
in Bayamon. 

42. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood with 
gesso; original paint visible on body, face 
and child heavily repainted; early 19th 
century; found in La Plata, Aibonito. 



PRIMITIVE AND TRADITIONAL, 

19th and 20th centuries 

•43. La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); 
wood, painted; 19th century; found near 
Quebradillas. 

44. La Purisima (The Most Pure, The Virgin 
Mary); wood and tin, original paint; 
19th century; found in San Sebastian. 

45. San Rafael (St. Raphael); wood and tin; 
original paint; 19th century; found in 
San Lorenzo. 

46. Cristo Crucificado (Christ Crucified); 
wood, unpainted; 19th century; found 
near Bayamon. 

*47. El Sagrado Corazon de Maria (The Sacred 
Heart of Mary); wood, unpainted; 19th 
century; found near Aibonito. 

48. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood with 
gesso, painted, repainting partially re- 
moved; early 19th century; found in 
Rio Piedras. 

49. La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); 
wood with gesso, painted; early 19th 
century. 

*50. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood with 
gesso and original paint: mid-19th cen- 
tury; found near Rio Piedras. 

51. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood, painted 
and repainted; mid-19th century; found 
in Aguada. 

52. Unidentified; wood, painted and re- 
painted; mid-19th century; found near 
Aibonito. 

53. Unidentified; wood, painted and re- 
painted; mid-19th century. 

54. La Purisima (The Most Pure, The Virgin 
Mary); wood with gesso and original 
paint; probably mid-19th century. 

55. La Dolorosa (Our Lady of Sorrows); 
wood with gesso, painted and repainted; 
probably about 1850; found in Dorado. 

56. Unidentified (St. Rita (?) or St. Rose (?) ); 
wood with original paint; probably mid- 
19th century. 

57. Anima Sola (The Lone Soul): wood with 
gesso and original paint; probably mid- 
19th century. 

58. La Purisima (The Most Pure, The Virgin 
Mary) ; wood with gesso, painted and 
repainted; probably mid-19th century. 

*59. La Purisima (The Most Pure, The Virgin 
Mary); wood with gesso and original 
paint; probably mid-19th century; found 
in Santa Olaya, Bayamon. 

*60. La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); 
wood, painted and repainted once; prob- 
ably 1830. 

61. La Purisima (The Most Pure, The Virgin 
Mary); wood, painted and repainted; 
probably about 1865; found near Moca. 

62. La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); 
wood with gesso, painted and repainted; 
probably 1870; by Quiterio Caban (1848- 
1941); found in Barrio Lechuga, Hatillo. 



63. Santa Ana (St. Anne); wood, painted, with 
much repainting; probably about 1870; 
found in San Lorenzo. 

64. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood with 
gesso, original paint; about 1875; by 
Quiterio Cabin (1848-1941) ; found near 
Hatillo. 

65. Santa Marta (St. Martha); wood with 
original paint; about 1890; probably an 
early work of Flores Caban (1870-1950); 
found in Hatillo. 

*66. San Ramon (St. Raymond); wood, painted 
and repainted; about 1900; by Flores 
Caban (1870-1950); found in Hatillo. 

*67. La Inmaculada (The Immaculate Con-' 
ception); wood with original paint; about 
1895; by Flores Caban (1870-1950); found 
in Hatillo. 

68. La Divina Providencia (The Divine Provi- 
dence); wood with original paint; about 
1900; found near Arecibo. 

69. Crucifijo (Crucifix) ; wood, painted and 
repainted; about 1920; probably by Juan 
Muriiz (1893-); found near San Sebastian. 

70. Anima Sola (The Lone Soul); wood with 
original paint; about 1920; by Manuel 
Caban (1884-); found near Arecibo. 

*71. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood with 
original paint; about 1925. 

*72. El Milagro de Hormigueros (The Miracle 
of Hormigueros); wood with original 
paint; 1948; by Flores Caban (1870-1950). 
73. La Virgen del Carmen (Our Lady of 
Mount Carmel); wood with original 
paint; 1948; by Flores Caban (1870-1950) . 

*74. Crucifijo (Crucifix); wood with original 
paint; 1948; by Flores Caban (1870-1950). 

75. Santiago Apostol (St. James the Apostle); 
wood and metal, with original paint; 
1950; by Juan Muniz (1893-). 

76. Crucifijo (Crucifix); wood with original 
paint; 1950; by Juan Muniz 1893-). 

77. La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); 
wood with original paint; 1950; by Juan 
Muniz (1893-). 

78. San Jose (St. Joseph); wood with original 
paint; 1950; by Manuel Caban (1884-); 
Aguadilla. 

79. San Rafael (St. Raphael); wood with 
original paint; 1953; by Carlos Vazquez; 
Ciales. 

80. La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); 
wood with original paint; 1953; by Flores 
Cortes; Moca. 

81. La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); 
wood with original paint; 1953; by Zoilo 
Cajigas, 1855-); Aguada. 

82. San Francisco (St. Francis); wood and 
metal, original paint; 1951; by Zoilo 
Cajigas (1855-); Aguada. 

83. El Nazareno (Christ Nazarene); wood with 
original paint; 1952; by Zoilo Cajigas, 
(1855-); Aguada. 

84. La Dolorosa (Our Lady of Sorrows); 
wood with original paint; 1953; by Zoilo 
Cajigas, (1855-); Aguada. 



*85. El Perpetuo Socorro (Our Lady of Per- 
petual Help); wood with original paint; 
1953; by Manuel Caban (1884-) Aguadilla. 

THE WORK OF THE CABAN FAMILY, 

19th and 20th centuries 

EDUVIGIS CABAN, 1818-1890 

86. La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); 
wood with gesso and original paint; found 
near Quebradillas. 
*87. La Inmaculada (The Immaculate Con- 
ception); wood with gesso, painted and 
repainted; found near Quebradillas. 

88. Los Tres Santos Reyes (The Three Kings); 
wood with gesso, painted and repainted; 
found in Aguada. 

89. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood with 
gesso, painted and repainted; found in 
Barrio Puntas, Rincon. 

90. La Inmaculada (The Immaculate Con- 
ception); wood, painted and repainted; 
found in Aguada. 

QUITERIO CABAN, 1848-1941 

91. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood with 
gesso, painted and repainted; found in 
Quebradillas. 

92. Santo Tomds (St. Thomas); wood with 
gesso (?), painted and repainted; found 
in Hatillo. 

93. El Perpetuo Socorro (Our Lady of Per- 
petual Help); wood with gesso (?) and 
original paint; found in Quebradillas. 

94. Crucifijo (Crucifix); wood with gesso, 
painted and repainted; found near 
Hatillo. 

95. La Inmaculada (The Immaculate Con- 
ception); wood with gesso and paper, 
original paint; found in Quebradillas. 

96. Crucifijo (Crucifix); wood with gesso (?) 
or cola (glue), original paint. 

97. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood with 
original paint; found in Barrio Lechuga, 
Hatillo. 

98. Santa Rita (St. Rita); wood with gesso, 
original paint; probably 1868. 

99. La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); 
wood with original paint; found in 
Quebradillas. 

100. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood with 
gesso, painted and repainted; found in 
Hatillo. 

101. La Virgen del Carmen (Our Lady of 
Mount Carmel); wood with gesso, origi- 
nal paint; found in Quebradillas. 

102. San Rafael y Tobias (St. Raphael and 
Tobias); wood with gesso, metal, original 
paint; found in Quebradillas. 

103. La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); 
wood with gesso, painted and repainted; 
found in Hatillo. 

104. La Dolorosa (Our Lady of Sorrows); 
wood with gesso, painted and repainted; 
found in Quebradillas. 

105. La Virgen del Carmen (Our Lady of 
Mount Carmel); wood with gesso, painted 



and repainted; found in Barrio Lechuga, 
Hatillo. 

106. La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); 
wood with gesso, original paint; found 
in Quebradillas. 

107. La Santisima Trinidad (The Holy Trin- 
ity); wood with gesso, painted and re- 
painted; found in Comerio. 

108. Santa Isabel (St. Elizabeth); wood, painted 
and repainted. 

109. San Ramon (St. Raymond); wood with 
gesso, original paint; found near 
Quebradillas. 

110. San Jose (St. Joseph); wood with gesso, 
original paint; found near Hatillo. 

111. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood with 
gesso, painted and repainted; found in 
Catano. 

112. Unidentified; wood with gesso (?), original 
paint; found in Quebradillas. 

113. The Son (?), from a Trinity Group (?); 
wood and original paint. 

114. Father and Son from a Trinity Group; 
wood, original paint with some repaint; 
found in Barrio Lechuga, Hatillo. 

115. La Virgen Arrodillada (The Kneeling 
Virgin); wood with gesso, original paint; 
found in Quebradillas. 

FLORES CABAN, 1870-1950 

116. Crucifijo (Crucifix); wood with gesso, 
painted and repainted; between 1895 
and 1915; found in Camuy. 

117. La Virgen (The Virgin Mary); wood, 
painted and repainted; between 1895 and 
1915; found in Hatillo. 

118. Un Arcdngel (An Archangel); wood, 
original paint, between 1895 and 1915; 
found in Hatillo. 

119. La Virgen (The Virgin Mary); wood and 
original paint; between 1895 and 1915; 
found in Quebradillas. 

120. La Purisima (The Most Pure, The Virgin 
Mary); wood and original paint; between 
1895 and 1915; found in San Sebastian. 

121. Unidentified; wood with original paint; 
between 1895 and 1915; found in Hatillo. 

122. La Virgen Arrodillada (The Kneeling 
Virgin); wood, painted and repainted; 
between 1895 and 1915; found in 
Quebradillas. 

123. La Virgen (The Virgin); wood and 
original paint; between 1895 and 1915; 
found in Hatillo. 

124. La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); 
wood, painted and repainted; between 
1895 and 1915; found in Palma Llanos, 
Lares. 

125. La Virgen del Carmen (Our Lady of 
Mount Carmel); wood and original paint; 
between 1895 and 1915; found in Hatillo. 

126. La Virgen (The Virgin); wood with gesso, 
painted and repainted: between 1895 and 
1915; found in Barrio Lechuga, Hatillo. 

*127. La Santisima Trinidad (The Holy Trin- 
ity); wood and original paint; between 
1895 and 1915; found in Quebradillas. 

10 



128. La Virgen del Carmen (Our Lady of 
Mount Carmel); wood with gesso and 
original paint; between 1895 and 1915; 
found near Arecibo. 

129. La Santisima Trinidad (The Holy Trin- 
ity); wood and original paint; between 
1895 and 1915; found near Quebradillas. 

130. La Virgen (The Virgin); wood, painted 
and repainted; between 1895 and 1915; 
found in Hatillo. 

131. La Santisima Trinidad (The Holy Trin- 
ity); wood and original paint; between 
1895 and 1915; found at the home of the 
santero's son in Aguadilla. 

* 132. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood and 
original paint; between 1895 and 1915; 
found in Barrio San Jose, Quebradillas. 

133. La Purisima (The Most Pure, The Virgin 
Mary); wood, painted and repainted; 
between 1895 and 1915; found in Dorado. 

134. La Virgen (The Virgin); wood and origi- 
nal paint; between 1915 and 1950; found 
in Hatillo. 

135. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood and 
original paint; between 1915 and 1950; 
found in Quebradillas. 

136. Los Tres Santos Reyes (The Three 
Kings); wood and original paint; between 
1915 and 1950. 

137. Santa Rita (Saint Rita); wood and origi- 
nal paint; between 1915 and 1950; found 
in Aguadilla. 

•138. La Sagrada Familia (The Holy Family); 
wood and original paint; between 1915 
and 1950. 

*139. Santa Marta (St. Martha); wood with 
gesso (perhaps one of the last figures to 
employ gesso), original paint; between 
1915 and 1950; found in Camuy. 

140. El Perpetuo Socorro (Our Lady of Per- 
petual Help); wood and original paint; 
between 1915 and 1950; found in Camuy. 

141. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood and 
original paint; between 1915 and 1950; 
found in Camuy. 

142. La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); 
wood, painted and repainted; between 
1915 and 1950; found in Quebradillas. 

143. Santa Isabel (St. Elizabeth); wood and 
original paint; between 1915 and 1950; 
found in Camuy. 

144. La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); 
wood and original paint; between 1915 
and 1950; found in Camuy. 

145. La Virgen del Carmen (Our Lady of 
Mount Carmel); wood and original paint; 
between 1915 and 1950; found in Camuy. 

MANUEL CABAN, 1884- 

146. San Antonio (St. Anthony); wood and 
original paint; 1952-1953; found in 
Aguadilla. 

147. Santa Rita (St. Rita); wood and original 
paint; 1952-1953; found in Aguadilla. 

148. La Virgen del Carmen (Our Lady of 
Mount Carmel); wood and original paint; 
1952-1953; found in Aguadilla. 



149. La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); 
wood and original paint; 1952-1953; 
found in Aguadilla. 

150. San Ramon (St. Raymond); wood and 
original paint; 1952-1953; found in 
Aguadilla. 

151. San Rafael y Tobias (St. Raphael and To- 
bias); wood and original paint; 1952-1953; 
found in Aguadilla. 

152. La Virgen del Carmen (Our Lady of 
Mount Carmel); wood and original paint; 
1952-1953; found in Aguadilla. 

153. San Miguel Arcdngel (Archangel Michael); 
wood and original paint; 1953; found in 
Aguadilla. 

THE NATIVITY THEME, 

19th and 20th centuries 

154. El Nacimiento (The Nativity); wood and 
original paint; 1952; by Juan Mufiiz, 
(1893-). 

155. Los Tres Santos Reyes (The Three Kings); 
wood with gesso, painted and repainted 
in areas; probably late 18th or early 19th 
century, found in Barrio Santa Olaya, 
Bayamon. 

*156. Los Tres Sa?itos Reyes (The Three Kings); 
wood with gesso, original paint; probably 
late 18th or early 19th century; found 
near Aibonito. 
157. Los Tres Santos Reyes (The Three Kings); 
wood with gesso and original paint; prob- 
ably late 18th or early 19th century; 
found in La Plata. 

*I58. Los Tres Santos Reyes (The Three Kings); 
wood with gesso and original paint; prob- 
ably late 18th or early 19th century; 
found in La Plata. 

159. Los Tres Reyes Magos (The Magi); wood 
with gesso, painted and repainted; prob- 
ably early 19th century; found near 
Arecibo. 

160. Los Tres Reyes Magos (The Magi); wood 
with gesso, painted and repainted; prob- 
ably mid-19th century. 

161. Cristo Crucificado (Christ Crucified); wood 
with gesso and original paint; about 1850; 
found in Barrio Beatriz. Cidra. 

162. La Virgen Adorando al Nino (The Adora- 
tion of the Child); wood with cola (glue) 
and original paint; about 1875; by Qui- 
terio Caban (1848-1941); found in Hatillo. 

163. Los Tres Santos Reyes (The Three Kings); 
wood, prepared, and original paint; about 
1890; work of the Cabans; Coamo. 

164. Los Tres Santos Reyes (The Three Kings); 
wood, prepared, and original paint; about 
1890; work of the Cabans; found in 
Hatillo. 

165. Los Tres Santos Reyes (The Three Kings); 
wood, prepared, painted and repainted; 
about 1890; work of the Cabans; found in 
Camuy. 

166. Los Tres Reyes Magos (The Magi); wood 
with gesso, painted and repainted; prob- 
ably 1900; work of the Cabans. 

*167. El Nacimiento (The Nativity); wood and 



original paint; probably 1900; by Flores 
Caban; (1870-1950); found in Coamo. 

168. Los Tres Santos Reyes (The Three Kings); 
wood, painted and repainted; probably 
1900; by Flores Caban (1870-1950); found 
in Coamo. 

169. El Nacimiento (The Nativity); wood and 
original paint; probably 1900; by Flores 
Caban (1870-1950); found in Hatillo. 

170. Los Tres Santos Reyes (The Three Kings); 
wood and original paint; about 1920; by 
Flores Caban (1870-1950); found in 
Hatillo. 

•171. Los Tres Santos Reyes (The Three Kings); 

wood with original paint; 1948; by Flores 

Caban (1870-1950); found in Camuy. 
172. Los Tres Reyes Magos (The Magi); wood, 

painted and repainted; about 1900. 
*173. Los Tres Sa7itos Reyes (The Three Kings); 

wood, painted and repainted; about 1900. 

174. Los Tres Reyes Magos (The Magi); wood, 
paint probably original; probably about 
1930; found in Santurce. 

175. Los Tres Santos Reyes (The Three Kings); 
wood and original paint; by Zoilo Cajigas 
(1855-); found in Aguada. 

176. Los Tres Reyes Magos (The Magi); wood 
and original paint; 1953; by Manuel 
Caban, (1884); found in Aguadilla. 

177. Los Tres Santos Reyes (The Three Kings); 
wood, and original paint; 1953; by Flores 
Cortes; found in Moca. 

178. Los Tres Santos Reyes y Las Tres Marias 
(The Three Kings and the Three Marys); 
wood and original paint; 1952; by Zoilo 
Cajigas, (1855-); found in Aguada. 

179. Los Tres Reyes Magos (The Magi): wood 
and original paint; 1952; by Juan Mufiiz, 
(1893-); found in Rincon. 

*180. Los Tres Santos Reyes (The Three Kings); 
wood and original paint; 1953; by Carlos 
Vazquez; found in Ciales. 

181. El Nacimiento (The Nativity); wood and 
original paint; 1948; by Flores Caban 
(1870-1950); found in Camuy. 

182. El Nacimiento (The Nativity); wood and 
metal, original paint; 1952; by Manuel 
Caban 1884-); found in Aguadilla. 

183. El Nacimiento (The Nativity); wood and 
metal, original paint; 1953; by Manuel 
Caban, (1884-). 

184. El Nacimiento (The Nativity); wood and 
metal, original paint; 1953; by Manuel 
Caban (1884-). 

185. El Nacimiento (The Nativity); wood and 
original paint; 1952; by Carlos Vazquez; 
found at Ciales. 

186. El Nacimiento (The Nativity); wood and 
metal, original paint; 1953; by Manuel 
Caban (1884-). 

THE WORK OF ZOILO CAJIGAS, 1855- 

187. La Virgen Maria de Nina (The Young 
Virgin Mary); wood and original paint; 
probably 1925; Aguada. 

188. La Santisima Trinidad (The Holy Trin- 

11 



ity); wood and metal, original paint; 194. La Sagrada Familia (The Holy Family); 
1940; Aguada. wood and metal, original paint; 1952. 

189. La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); 195. Angeles Guardidnes (Guardian Angels); 
wood and original paint; 1948; Aguada. wood and original paint; 1949. 

190. La Huida a Egipto (The Flight into 196 - La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); 
Egypt); wood and metal, original paint; wood and original paint; 1950. 

1949- Aguada ^'- J - a Sa g Ta d a Familia (The Holy Family); 

•191. La Monserrate (Our Lady of Monserrat); .„ ?°°£ and m f tal - ori ? inal P?^ 195 °- „ 

wood and original paint 1949; Aguada. 198 " La M °™™^ (Our Lady of Monserrat); 
° r ' o wood and original paint; 1953. 

192. Los Tres Santos Reyes (The Three Kings); 199 . La Santisima Trinidad, (The Holy Trin- 
wood and original paint; 1949; Aguada. lty ). wood and or i g i na i paint ; ig4 9 . 

193. Angel Guardian (Guardian Angel); wood 200. La Divina Providencia (The Divine Provi- 
and original paint; 1948. dence); wood and original paint; 1950. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

"Santos from Puerto Rico" is the major portion of the collection of 
Dr. Fernando M. Monserrate, and is displayed at The Cooper Union through 
the courtesy and aid of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, U. S. A., and the 
interest of the President of The Cooper Union, Dr. Edwin S. Burdell. 

Those charged with the arrangements have received assistance from 
the following persons and organizations, to whom are returned most 
grateful thanks: 

Archdiocese of New York 
Community Education Division, 

Department of Education, 

Commonwealth of Puerto Rico 
Economic Development 

Administration, 

Commonwealth of Puerto Rico 
Mrs. Luisa Hempel 
Juan Luis MArquez 
Dr. Fernando M. Monserrate 
Puerto Rico News Service, 

handled by Hamilton Wright 

Organization, Inc. 
Puerto Rico Visitors Bureau 
University of Puerto Rico 



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